Statement of Purpose:
A Statement of Purpose (SOP) is a research statement written to the admission panel to share about your career path, professional contributions, goals and the interest behind pursuing a particular program. This is generally submitted in the form of an essay but certain universities may also keep it question-based. It is the most integral part of your application for a particular program that decides your admission in your preferred institution.
Letter of Recommendation:
The LOR is a document that provides the admission officers with comprehensive information of your suitable candidature for admission into the concerned/ preferred University. It is a document that highlights your character traits and work ethic to help them in their application process. The student may use it to enter an academic program or a career.
An Academic Resume is not much different from a resume you normally prepare. The only difference is the absence of some sections like summary, objective statement, etc. The Academic Resume is a standard document aiming at capturing your candidature by highlighting your achievements.